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Sun Tzu Art of War June 20, 2009

Filed under: Psikologi — mailanihidayati @ 6:33 am
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FROM CONCUBINES to MAO ZEDONG
Sun Tzu’s Art of War is the oldest military classic known in Chinese literature. It is also the most revered and well know military text outside China.While its exact origin and authorship have been debated, scholar of military history are unanimous that the book existed, and was probably written, around 400 to 320 B.C., 100 Years after the births of Confucius and Lao Tze, two well known Chinese philosophers. Thus, the book is today over 2.400 years old.
Sun Tzu’s Art of War adalah litelatur China tertua mengenai militer klasik. Buku ini juga merupakan referensi dan teks paling terkemuka di luar China. Pengarang dan tahun dicetaknya masih menjadi perdebatan, penulisnya tidak diketahui dan mungkin dibuat sekitar tahun 400 sampai 320 S.M., 100 tahun setelah kelahiran Confucinus dan Lao Tze, dua filosof terkenal China. Maka, buku ini kini berusia lebih dari 2.400 tahun.
The significance and importance of Sun Tzu’s work in influencing military thought has seldom been questioned. For exemple, exen modern day military writing and thinking vears much inspiration from the work of Sun Tzu. His works and militaery strantegies were known to have been used extensively during the period of the warring states (about 453 to 221 B.C.). In fact, in another were many strategies that mirrored those advocared by Sun Tzu.
Yang paling berarti dan yang paling penting dari hasil kerja Sun Tzu’s adalah pengaruhnya dalam pemikiran militer yang benar-benar tak terduga. Misalnya ketika dunia militer modern terinspirasi dengan tulisan dan pemikiran Sun Tzu. Pekerjaannya dan strategi perangnya diketahui dipakai pada periode perang The Warring States (about 453 to 221 B.C.. Pada kenyataannya banyak strategi yang terinspirasi dari karya Sun Tzu.
One illustration of the genius and ability of Sun Tzu concerns hid legendary experience in training the imperial concubines. It was told that after reading Sun Tzu’s Art of War, the emperor Ho-lo of Wu requested Sun Tzu to demostrate whether hi sworks were applicable to the training of women. Thereupon, Sun Tzu requested that he be given full authority and asked to be proveded with 180 beautiful women from the implerial palace, including Emperor Ho-lo’s two most favorite concubines. He devided the 180 ladies into two groups, appinted the two imperial concubines to be in charge of each groups, proceeded to give detailed instructions on how they should move upon hering the drums signals that he was about to give. To show his seriousness, he even ordered that te executioner’s weapon demonstrated. When Sun Tzu beat his drum the first time around they could not carry out the orders. SunTzu went on to explain to the 180 ladies that if first time around they could ot carry out the instructions, it must be vecause the orders from the superior commander (himself) were unclear and not thoroughly explaned. Thus, he went on to repeat and explain the orders on how they should move upo hearing the beat of the drum. The ladies giggled and burst into laughter again.
Satu ilustrasi dari kejeniusan dan kemampuan dari SunTzu adalah dalam pengalaman legendarisnya dalam pelatihan selir kerajaan. Tertulis dalam buku Sun Tzu Art of War, kaisar Ho-lu meminta SunTzu untuk menunjukan kemmpkuannya melatih tesntara peranga yagn beranggotakan perempuan. Disisi lain, Sun Tzu meminta diberi penuh kekuasaan dan meminta disediakan 180 wanita cantik dari kerajaan termasuk dua selir kesayangan kaisar Ho-lo. Ia membagi 180 watina tersebut menjadi dua kelompok, dengan masing-masing selir kaisar menjadi ketua kelaompok, dan memberikan plerintah tentang bagaimana gerakan yang harus ditunjukan ketika mendengan tanda ddari drum yang diberikan. Untuk menunjukan keseriusannya, ia memerintahkan disediakan dua algojo. Ketika SunTzu memukul rumnya untuk pertama kali, semua wanita itu cekikikan dan tertawa.dan tidak menuruti inruksi yang diberikan , ini terjadi karena perintah dari pemimpin utama (Sun Tzu) tidak jelas dan tak bisa dimengerti. Maka, ia ia mengulangi dan menjelasakan perintah bagaimaan mereka harus bergerak ketika mendengar drum dipukul. Lagi-lagi mereka cekikikan dan terawa.
<em>This time around, Sun Tzu repored that if orders were clearly explined and repeated by the superior commander, and yet not xarried out, the fault no longer was with the former, but with the ground or field commader.In that particular incident, it was the responsibility of the two imperial concubines who were put inxharge of the two groups. SunTzu gave orders tohave them executed! When Emperor Ho-lu heard about it, he tried to intervene and asked that his two favorite concunbines be spared. SunTzu refused and even replied that when the commander had been apointed as head of the army , he was not required to accept all the sovereign’s orders. Consequently, he still ordered the two omperial xoncubines bes executed as an example to the others. He appointedtwo new substitires, ans repeated the signals on the drum on hearing the beats from the drum, th ladies turned left, right, to the front, to the rear, knelt and rose, etc. all inaccordance single lady dared to giggle or make the slighters noise.
Saat, SunTzu mengulang perintah dengan jelas dan pasukan tidak mengikuti perintah, itu bukan kesalahan pemimpin utama tapi merupakan tanggung jawab kedua selir kerajaan. SunTzu memerintahkan mereka untuk dihukum pancung. Ketika kaisar mendengar hal tersebut ia mencoba untuk menyelamatkan dan memerintahkan agar kedua selirnya dilepaskan. Sun Tzu menolak dan menjawab ketika komando telah diberikan maka semua prajurit menjadi tanggung jawab pemimpin.Maka dari itu ia tetap memerintahkan kedua selir itu untuk dihukum pancung.Ia menunjuk dua penganti sebagai ketua masing-masing kelompok, mengulang perintah denga memukul drum. Mendengar pukulan drum, wanita-wanita itu belok kiri, belok kanan, maju kedepan,bubar jalan, dan ditempat, dan lain-lain semua sesuai perintah dan tak ada lagi cekikikan dan berisik.
Today, Sun Tzu’s Art of War remainds a compusory text in major military schools around th world and its influence on twntient century millitay thinking is andisputed. The well known saying of Mao Zedong, ” Know ykour enemy, know yokur self, hudred battles , hudred victorses,” is infact a partial quote from Tzu’ WRITINGS:
“He who has a thorough knowledge of himself and the enemy is bound to win in all battles. He who knows himself but not the enemy, has only an even chance of winning. He who knkows not himself and the enemy is bound to rerish in all batles.” and ” Know your enemy , know yourself, and your victory wil not be thetatened know the terrain, know the wheather and you victory will be complete.

Kini, Sun Tzu’s Art of War menjadi referensi wajib dalam sekolah-sekolah militer diseluruh dunia dan ini mempengaruhi mengenai pemikiran milliter di abad 20. Petuah bijak dari Mao Zedong ,”Ketahuilan musuhmu, dirimu sendiri; maka ratusan medan pertempuran, ratusan kemenangan.” Bagian dari tulisan Tzu: “Siapa yang memiliki pengetahun tentang dirinya sendiri, tentang musuhnya, kemenangan adalah miliknya; siapa yang hanya mengetahui tentang dirinya tetapi tidak mengenai musuhnya ia memiliki satu kesempatan. Ia yang tidak mengetahui tentang dirinya dan musuhnya, ia menyiapkan kekelahan.” dan “Mengetahui musuhmu, dirimu, kemenangan akan menjadi milik sempuna.”

 

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